Blanche Dubois: An Antihero
(WR 100, Paper 2)
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Tennessee Williams’s play A Streetcar Named Desire presents an ambiguous moral puzzle to readers. Critics and audiences alike harbor vastly torn opinions concerning Blanche’s role in the play, which range from praising her as a fallen angel victimized by her surroundings to damning her as a deranged harlot. Critic Kathleen Margaret Lant claims that Williams prohibits Blanche from the realm of tragic protagonist as a result of his own culturally ingrained misogyny, using her victimization as an intentional stab at womanhood. At another end of the spectrum, critic Anca Vlasopolos interprets Blanche’s downfall as a demonstration of Williams’s sympathy for her circumstances and a condemnation of the society that destroys her. Despite such strong convictions, debate still exists over Williams’s intentions in the weaving of Blanche Dubois’ tale and the purpose of the play’s moral ambiguity. Throughout the play, Williams’s sympathies lie with Blanche; this sympathy proves Williams is not misogynistic but rather condemns the environment that has brought about Blanche’s tragic circumstances.
Sympathy for Blanche in A Streetcar Named Desire is garnered in large part from the obvious trauma she has experienced due to the loss of her beloved husband, Allan Grey. Ironically, this aspect of the play is also one that critics and readers frequently use to demonize Blanche and disprove her role as a sympathetic character. Arguments arise that attempt to lessen the traces of author and reader sympathy in Blanche’s widowhood; critics claim Williams believes Blanche behaved hatefully toward her husband or failed him in some manner, leading to the death she now laments. Kathleen Margaret Lant claims that “Williams does consider Blanche guilty for not saving her husband from his homosexuality . . . and for not showing more womanly support and compassion for the young man . . .” (233). Lant posits that Blanche had a responsibility as a wife to somehow rescue her husband from his own sexuality, and Williams condemns her lack of calm understanding when confronted with a threat to her own happy marriage. However, this claim contrasts with the trauma that the death has caused Blanche, and the implications that the overpowering love she felt for Allan Grey may have been the last true emotion to which she allowed herself to succumb. She refers to her “empty heart” (146) and sadly mentions, “I loved someone too, and the person I loved I lost” (113). Blanche is visibly heartbroken by her loss, which intentionally evokes pity from the reader.
Evidence also abounds that the traumatic loss of her husband was a driving force for the downward spiral that leads Blanche to Stella’s doorstep. The scandalous events that drive Blanche to her ultimate defeat do not begin until after Allan’s death, and she even admits, “After the death of Allan—intimacies with strangers was all I seemed able to fill my empty heart with . . . I think it was panic, just panic, that drove me from one to another, hunting for some protection” (146). Williams implies that Blanche is not inherently impious; the disintegration of the loving marriage she once clung to dissipates her naïve, youthful innocence and leads her to a sordid path. Blanche’s heartbreak following her first love causes her to descend into the degeneration that becomes her ruin, a fact which lends empathetic justification and a sorrowful light to her actions.
Another situation in which Williams shows sympathy toward Blanche is her most dramatic victimization in the play: her rape. This scene requires careful analysis in order for one to understand that Stanley’s rape of Blanche is indeed an antagonistic victimization and not Williams’s misogynistic idea of poetic justice, as many critics argue. Lant claims in her article that “Williams goes to great lengths to obscure the fact that rape is a political crime . . . making this seem a crime of passion and desire rather than one of violence, cruelty, and revenge . . .” (235). She insists Williams “harbors false notions about rape” and believes Blanche is “a loud-mouthed, flirtatious whore who really asked for what she got” (236). According to Lant, Williams condemns Blanche even as a rape victim and utilizes her as a symbol of justice, a promiscuous woman who essentially brought her victimization on herself.
However, this argument is in complete dissonance with the obvious signs of Blanche’s noncompliance in the rape and utterly ignores Williams’s vilification of Stanley throughout the play. Critic Anca Vlasopolos states the drive to prove Blanche, or any human victim for that matter, compliant in her victimization is simply the byproduct of “an arsenal of psychoanalysis” and points out that “The ‘inhuman voices’ and ‘lurid reflections’ on the walls link the victimization of Blanche in scenes 10 and 11 [in which Blanche is unwillingly seized by the doctors] in a way that dismisses Blanche’s complicity in the rape . . .” (165). Indeed, the “inhuman voices” and “lurid reflections” that Vlasopolos mentions are described by Williams during the rape scene as “grotesque” and “menacing” (159), an effect particularly unsettling in conjunction with Blanche’s protests of “I warn you, don’t, I’m in danger!” (161). The dark, sinister mood of the rape scene disproves the argument that Blanche is in any way compliant with Stanley’s violation, discouraging the notion that Williams approves of the rape or intends the audience to view the rape as Blanche’s just desserts.
In addition to Blanche’s evident noncompliance, Williams’s vilification of Stanley throughout the entire play draws a clear distinction between victim and villain in the rape scene. Upon Stanley’s first appearance, Williams describes how “[h]e seizes women up at a glance . . . crude images flashing into his mind and determining the way he smiles at them,” and in the next line Blanche not coincidentally “draw[s] involuntarily back from his stare” (25). This significant exchange sets the mood for the tension between Blanche and Stanley that continues throughout the play. Several times Blanche regards Stanley with a “look of panic” (127) or a “frightened look” (135), subtle stage directions that further Stanley’s dark portrayal and foreshadow his victimization of Blanche. The fact that Stanley is characterized as lecherous and Blanche merely as mentally weak and insecure reflects where Williams’s sympathies lie; it does not imply that Blanche brings on Stanley’s womanizing cruelty but rather that any woman could become his prey. Williams establishes Blanche’s role as Stanley’s victim far earlier on in the play than his physical domination of her, and Stanley’s menacing characterization implies that Blanche’s flawed character does not give her singular potential to fall victim to him.
In A Streetcar Named Desire’s final scene, Williams makes his sympathetic tone toward Blanche tangible by exploiting her vulnerability before the indifference of the people and society that surrounds her. In addition to the iconic comment “I have always depended on the kindness of strangers” (178), Blanche’s vulnerability is also illuminated through stage directions such as “a look of sorrowful perplexity as though all human experience shows on her face” (167) and “She turns her face to [the doctor] and stares at him with desperate pleading” (177–8). Blanche’s vulnerability leaves her sharply exposed before the cold unresponsiveness of the people who witness her defeat and represent the society in which she has been immersed: the men’s poker game resumes abruptly after her dramatic exit, Blanche’s own sister Stella returns her pleas delivered in a “frightening whisper” by staring blankly back at her in a “moment of silence” (174), and Eunice simply responds to her claim of rape with, “Don’t ever believe it. Life has got to go on” (166). The other characters in the play, representative of the era’s misogynistic society, choose to disregard Blanche’s plight in accordance with what society expects. Blanche has fallen victim to the brutality of male dominance, yet even the women around her turn a blind eye to her suffering in order to avoid any disruption of their everyday lives.
Lant and Vlasopolos hold different interpretations of this final indifference toward Blanche. Lant claims that A Streetcar Named Desire’s ending “dehumanizes Blanche, undercuts her tragic situation, and renders her . . . a maddened hysteric with no place in a well-ordered society” (230). According to Lant, Williams portrays Blanche as a stain on a virtuous, morally correct society. However, Williams’s negative descriptions of the chaotic, domestic abuse-ridden households that the Kowalskis and their neighbors inhabit hardly portray them as examples of a “well-ordered society” (Lant 230). Hence, Williams intends Blanche’s ousting to be a criticism of the surroundings that oust her rather than her as a reject.
Vlasopolos mentions, “The fact that audiences feel ambivalent about Blanche is not the problem Williams raises; the problem is rather the audience’s pragmatic shrug at the end of the play” (168). Vlasopolos explains that the permeating air of indifference surrounding Blanche’s final rejection is precisely the issue that Williams wishes to criticize. He utilizes the key characters of the play, who silently watch the doctors force Blanche away to an unknown fate, to represent the cold, misogynistic society in which she has been immersed and from which she is now ultimately rejected. Williams uses the juxtaposition of Blanche’s vulnerability with the indifference of the participants in her destruction to demonstrate further sympathy for her and direct criticism toward her surroundings.
One can easily deduce Williams’s sympathy toward Blanche throughout the play and even in the circumstances of her downfall, which gives greater insight into both Williams’s perceptions of her role as a character and his own views. Although at first glance Blanche’s checkered sexual past and addiction to the attention of men seem to safely secure her a pigeonhole in a womanizing society, in reality her experiences have only broken down her weak spirit and driven her to her downfall. Because of Williams’s sympathy, Blanche becomes a tragic protagonist in A Streetcar Named Desire and transforms the play into a sort of allegory: Williams uses her plight to criticize the social circumstances that have both shaped her flawed persona and led to her demise. This social commentary leaves Williams’s motivations in question: as a homosexual male, why exactly is Williams so sympathetic toward Blanche? One possibility is that Williams’s homosexuality in a heavily masculine society rendered him naturally sympathetic toward the plight of women, with whom he probably identified more than with the archetypical male of the era. Another explanation is that, as a homosexual, Williams criticized heterosexuality itself, condemning the sexuality that turns Blanche into a victim, Stanley into a monster, and the rest of the characters into puppets on socio-cultural strings. Although Williams’s personal motives are debatable, the story he creates with Blanche Dubois presents a clearly sympathetic portrait of a woman downtrodden by a misogynistic world.
Lant, Kathleen Margaret. “A Streetcar Named Misogyny.” Violence in Drama. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1991. 225–238. Print.
Vlasopolos, Anca. “Authorizing History: Victimization in A Streetcar Named Desire.” Feminist Rereadings of Modern American Drama. Ed. June Schlueter. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 1989. 149–169. Print.
Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation, 2004. Print.
Table of Content
0. The importance of Blanche DuBois in “A Streetcar Named Desire”
1. Short biography of Tennessee Williams
2. Summary of the play
3. Caracterization of Blanche DuBois
3.1. Focus on the “outside world”
3.2. Blanche DuBois –incarnation of human loneliness
3.2.1. The reasons of Blanche’s loneliness
3.2.2. Blanche’s efforts to fight her loneliness
3.3. Blanche’s inner conflict – sexual desire of the body vs. transcendent aspirations of the soul
3.4. Blanche’s world of illusions
4. Blanche as an illustration of the antagonistic nature of each human being
0. The importance of Blanche DuBois in “A Streetcar Named Desire”
„A Streetcar Named Desire is a lyrical drama about the decline and fall of Blanche DuBois.“ (Londre, 1979: 78). In this quotation Felicia Hardison Londré indicates that both the character and the inner development of the protagonist Blanche are the focus of attention in “A Streetcar Named Desire”.
At first glance, Blanche DuBois may seem superficial, even a bit ridiculous on account of the importance she attributes to her looks and to her former social status. However, in my way of thinking, the protagonist’s behaviour is in a certain way symptomatic of society itself, even of humanity as a whole. That may be why “Walcott Gibbs referred to A Streetcar Named Desire as ‘a brilliant impacable play about the disintegration of a woman, or if you like, of a society.’” (Nelson 1961: 121). Therefore, I consider it crucial to allow insight into the multiple facets of Blanche’s personality. All the same, before approaching the caracterization, it is in my opinion necessary to provide you with some basic information about the writer of the play and its contents.
1. Short biography of Tennessee Williams
“’I am Blanche DuBois,’ Tennessee Williams has said on more than one occasion.” (Londré 1979: 21). This citacion highlights the importance of turning to Williams’ biography in order to fully grasp the meaning of his famous play. Therefore let us take a look at the life “[…] of one of America’s major mid- 20th century playwrights” (Internet source 1). Tennessee Williams was born Thomas Lanier Williams in Columbus, Mississippi, on March, 26, 1911. His father was an international shoe salesman who suffered from alcoholism and compulsive gambling. At the age of seven, Tennessee was diagnosed with Diphteria – a disease which caused his legs to be paralysed for the following two years. Since his mother did not permit him to waste his time just sitting around, she encouraged him to read a lot and make up stories by means of his vivid imagination. Besides, his inclination towards literature was fostered by the typewriter she offered him at thirteen. Consequently, when Tennessee turned 16, he published his first story (see Internet source 2).
In the early 1930s Williams entered the University of Missouri but was forced to leave before taking a degree because his father disapproved of his son’s devotion for literature and therefore urged him to work in the shoe business. However, Tennessee’s original desire for becoming an author persisted and made him pursue his writing education. Thus, in 1938 he finally received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the State University of Iowa. Around the time he received his bachelor degree his beloved sister Rose who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia got a Frontal Lobotomy to cure her mental illness. This form of psychosurgery handicapped Rose for the rest of her life – an incident which may have played its part in the developpment of both Tennessee’s alcoholism and his dependence on various kinds of drugs (see Internet source 3).
Nevertheless, Williams’ most successful years were still to come. While the playwright lived in the French Quarter in New Orleans he wrote the play with should become his first real success, “The Glass Menagerie” (1944), shortly followed in 1947 by the drama “A Streetcar Named Desire” for which he won the Pulitzer Prize. During the following decades Williams’ gay relationship with Frank Merlo which lasted from 1947 until Merlo’s death from cancer in 1961 provided a certain balance to his life marked by depression and addiction (see Internet source 4).
In the course of the 1970s and 1980s he continued to write for the theatre although “[…] he was unable to repeat the success of most of his early years” (Internet source 5).
On February 25, 1983 Williams died at the age of 71 after choking on an eyedrop bottle cap. It is, however, probable that his use of drugs and alcohol contributed to his death (see Internet source 6).
2. Summary of the play
Now I would like to give a brief survey about the contents of Williams’ famous play. In order to lay the foundation for the following main part of my term paper I will hereby focus on the internal development of the protagonist Blanche. During scene 1 she arrives at the home of her sister Stella who lives with her husband Stanley Kowalski in a fairly run-down dictrict of New Orleans. The circumstances which the Kowalskis live in are a total shock to the snobbish Southern Belle. In the following conversation with her sister Blanche explains that she has taken a leave from the school where she normally teaches on account of her upset mental state. After the warm reunion of the two sisters Blanche discloses that the family mansion “Belle Reve” is lost. It was in this estate that Blanche cared for the dying members of the family whereas Stella opted for an autonomous life at the side of her less wealthy husband Stanley. He embodies the absolute opposite of Blanche which creates an atmosphere of discomfort and animosity right from the beginning.
The problematical relationship between the two main characters becomes even more evident when Stanley manifests his distrust of Blanche in the course of scene 2. He is persuaded that Blanche has swindled them about the reasons for the loss of the family plantation. The situation gets even worse by the time Stanley discovers some old love-letters which reveal Blanche’s young marriage to a boy who eventually died.
Stanley’s roughness finds its full expression during the poker night held at his apartment. After being disturbed by the two women Stanley ends up beating Stella who a few hours later forgives him and spends the night with him. Besides, scene 3 depicts the first meeting of Blanche and Mitch whom the elegant woman considers “[…] superior to the others” (Williams 1947: 50). Thus, it becomes apparent that the two are mutually attracted to each other.
Throughout the summer mutual affection rises between Mitch and Blanche. During one of their conversations Blanche entrusts Mitch with further details about her marriage shattered by discovery of her spouse’s homosexuality and by his subsequent suicide. Furthermore tensions build in the flat between Stanley and Blanche. Blanche, on the one hand, totally despises Stanley’s sensual, even animal orientation. Consequently, she tries in vain to persuade Stella to leave the flat along with her. Stanley, on the other hand, qualifies Blanche’s cultured and refined behaviour as hypocritical. Thus, he aims at proving his conviction of Blanche being a liar about her past. Through a co-worker who frequently travels to Laurel, Blanche’s ancient hometown, he learns about her past full of one-night stands with strangers culminating in an affair with a seventeen-year-old pupil. Accordingly, it was her permissive way of life that resulted in her dismissal.
As he passes this information on to Mitch, Stanley deliberately destroys Blanche’s relationship because Mitch does not want to marry her any longer. That is why in scene 7/8 Mitch stands her up at her birthday party. Furthermore, Stanley offers Blanche a bus ticket back to Laurel for birthday present. During a heavy fight with her husband Stella suddenly requests to be taken to hospital because the baby is coming.
In scene 9 Mitch arrives at the apartment and confronts Blanche with the rumours about her indecent past. As a result, Blanche admits her failures but justifies her behaviour explaining that the loneliness on account of her husband’s death prompted her to seek physical affection. After having stated that he won’t marry her any longer Mitch is kicked out of the apartment by Blanche.