Mla Style Bibliography Definition Writings

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:07:19

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.         

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.  

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu."Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me."Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note: In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal,vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,  www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

URLs:

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

DOIs:

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses:

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9).

or

According to Edward W. Said, imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9).

Work Cited

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

 

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.

 

Article in an encyclopedia with an authorPlease note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.

Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.

In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.

1. Book with one author or editor:

Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist.
Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.

Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History. New York: Schocken, 2002.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal
and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from
4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
Hyperion, 2005.

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
Lisse: Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.

—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of
Paul O’Neill. New York: Simon, 2004.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International
Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey
of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal
Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.

Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy
of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Toronto: Random, 1998.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed.
2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
Square, 1992.

3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special
Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College
Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815.
9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: 
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.

Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.
or,
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
Perigee, 2003.

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures.
Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian
Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
or,
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.  Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
2005.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous:
A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.

O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.

Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Book with no author or editor stated:

Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events
That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.

Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.

The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one author, translated by another:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:

“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.

“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.

11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.

“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.

“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.

“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star
25 Nov. 2004: A18.

“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:

Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.

The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.

Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
25 Jan. 2001: 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.

Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.

Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News
15 Jan. 2006: A6.

Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.

Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News
10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.

Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
Fall 2004: 102-111.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 18-22.

Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean
Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.

Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.

Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
or use “et al.”:
Wolanski, Eric, et al.  “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.

14. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.

IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 29 Oct. 2002: B7.

Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.

15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.

16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB:
Springbank, 1994.

17. Book, movie or film review:

May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The
Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase, by Karen Levine.
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The 
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77.

Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
1986, 31-44.

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
629-30.

Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.

Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.

Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.

18. CD-ROM, DVD:

A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
Tele-Direct, 1998.

19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times,
Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
197653951002.

20. Definition from a dictionary:

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the
English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.

21. Film, Movie:

Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book
by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.

Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.

One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler,
and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.

Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder.
Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.

22. Government publication:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada, 2000.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight –
Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
GPO, 2000.
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as:
Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:

a. Internet citation for an advertisement

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail

h. Internet citation for an online government publication

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site

k. Internet citation for a software download

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
1) Author.

2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.

3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined.

4) Editor of Project.

5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.

7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).

9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.

Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.

If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ibm.htm>.

TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.

Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.

Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2001/02/0209_mandela.html>.

Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
news/vol6/html_no20.htm>.
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post. 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004
<http://www.sirs.com>.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada.  Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
<http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/ce/canada>.

Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558397/Ho_Chi_Minh.html>.

“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.

“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005.  Encyclopædia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005  <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567>.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education.7 June 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.

“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003
<http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-4560.00260>.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:

“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
political/Afghan_etc.htm>.

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
display.pd?path=35041&bfrom=1&prodnum=3032062&>.

Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.journalismjobs.com/lawrence_lee.cfm>.

Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.

“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
hist102/photos/html/1023.html>.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998.  EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.

Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.

“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <[email protected]>.

PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.
10 Oct. 2005.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
oagtbs_e.asp>.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
charters_of_freedom/bill_of_rights/bill_of_rights.html>.

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:

Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/responses.html?article_id=110003579>.

Seaside Harry. “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online
posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.

O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Mathematicians/Wilkins.html>.

Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.

Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000.
12 Apr. 2006 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.

Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
10 Apr. 2006 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.

Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
Page=countries&Area=israel&ID=IA1699>.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004
<http://www.pcworld.com/downloads/file_download.asp?fid=7605>.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/
web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm>.

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
confessions_enchiridion.txt>.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006
<http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page3797.asp>.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2003/0224/cover/interview.html>.

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.

Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor:
Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.

Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor:
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection:
Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318.html>.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.

Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.

“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.

28. Musical composition:

Components:
1) Name of composer.
2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined,
3) Form, number and key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.

Strauss, Richard. Träumerei, op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.

Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse
Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace,
Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones.
By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
232.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett,
et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society,
Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum,
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31.

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great
Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.  New York:
Park Lane, 1986. 226.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art.
By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
1991. 408.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek
Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque,
Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne:
Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author.
22 Mar. 2003.

Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.

30. Patent:

Components:
1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number.
4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.

“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813.
27 Sept. 1988.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
26 Oct. 1999.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney’s The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor.
Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
20 Apr. 2002.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James
Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.
Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.

32. Radio, television:

Components:
1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.
2) Title of program, underlined.
3) Title of series.
4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters,
6) City of local station or channel.
7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.

Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network.
WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.

“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo.
13 Nov. 2002.

“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters,
New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side.
WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:

Components:
1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks).
3) Title of recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.).
5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
Zomba, 1999.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, n.d.
or,
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.

34. Software on floppy disk

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers. 1.0.
IBM, 1998.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.

Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
Nettwerk, 1994.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
DVD. Warner, 2004.

Jane Austen’s Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996.

Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick.
Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by
Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.

Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect,
1997.

The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.

36.Unpublished dissertations, theses

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.

Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of
Washington, 1985.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.

Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?

CONTENTS

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three authors or editors
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors
  5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  6. Book with no author or editor stated
  7. Book with one author, translated by another
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
  10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
  11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
  12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
  13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
  14. Advertisement
  15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
  16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
  17. Book, movie or film review
  18. CD-ROM, DVD
  19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
  20. Definition from a dictionary
  21. Film, movie
  22. Government publication
  23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
  24. Interview
  25. Lecture
  26. Letter, editorial
  27. Map, chart
  28. Musical composition
  29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
  30. Patent
  31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
  32. Radio, Television
  33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
  34. Software on floppy disk
  35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
  36. Unpublished dissertations, theses

0 Thoughts to “Mla Style Bibliography Definition Writings

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *