Zigbee Technology Conclusion Essay


In the year 2006, 458,293 new registered vehicles were reported compared to the year 1999 where there were only 296,716 new registered vehicles, which makes it a rough estimate of 54.5% increase in a span of 7 years (Malaysian Ministry of Transportation, 2007). Referring to the aforesaid statistics provided by the Malaysian Ministry of Transportation, the current transportation infrastructure and car park facilities are deemed insufficient in sustaining the influx of vehicles on the road.

Therefore, problems such as traffic congestion and insufficient parking space inevitably crops up. In Asia, the situation are made worse by the fact that the roads are significantly narrower compared to the West (Inaba et al., 2001). Various measures have been taken in the attempt to overcome the traffic problems. Although, the problem can be addressed via many methods, the paper focuses on the car park management system introduced, which is the smart parking system. This study will review the evolution of vehicle detection technologies as well as the detection systems developed over the years.


The smart parking system implemented mainly in the Europe, United States and Japan (Shaheen et al., 2005) is developed with the incorporation of advanced technologies and researches from various academic disciplines. With its deployment in the car park, it is hoped that it would solve the aforementioned problems faced by the patrons within the car park.

Advantages of smart parking system implementation: The smart parking system is considered beneficial for the car park operators, car park patrons as well as in environment conservation (Shaheen et al., 2005; Chinrungrueng et al., 2007). For the car park operators, the information gathered via the implementation of the Smart Parking System can be exploited to predict future parking patterns. Pricing strategies can also be manipulated according to the information obtained to increase the company’s profit. In terms of environment conservation, the level of pollution can be reduced by decreasing vehicle emission (air pollutant) in the air (Shaheen et al., 2005). This can be attributed to the fact that vehicle travel is reduced. As fuel consumption is directly related to vehicle miles travelled, it will be reduces as well.

Patrons are also able to benefit from smart parking system as parking space are able to be fully utilized (Kurogo et al., 1995; Sakai et al., 1995) with a safer (Shaheen et al., 2005; Chinrungrueng et al., 2007), optimized and more efficient system implemented (Sakai et al., 1995; Shaheen et al., 2005). The system is made more efficient as vehicle travel time and search time are significantly reduced due to the information provided by the smart parking system. With the information provided, drivers are able to avoid car park that are fully occupied and locate vacant parking spaces with ease elsewhere. The number of vehicles parked illegally by the roadside which leads to traffic congestion is also reduced as it is absorbed into the car parks (Kurogo et al., 1995). Most importantly, traffic congestion can be reduced. All this would eventually lead to convenience for the patrons.

Categories of smart parking system: The smart parking system can be divided into five major categories: namely, Parking Guidance and Information System (PGIS), transit based information system, smart payment system, E-parking and automated parking (Shaheen et al., 2005). Further discussion on the implementation and characteristic of each of the smart parking system category together with examples of its implementation around the world will also be provided.

Parking Guidance and Information System (PGIS): The implementation of Parking Guidance and Information System (PGIS) encompasses two major categories. The PGIS can either include the entire city area or function only within the car park facility (Shaheen et al., 2005). Setting aside the differences, both the PGIS implemented in many major cities in Europe, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States (Kurogo et al., 1995; Sakai et al., 1995; Shaheen et al., 2005; Mouskos et al., 2007) offer similar advantages similar to those of smart parking system as discussed earlier. Both provides information which aids the decision making process of the drivers in reaching their destination location and aids them in locating a vacant parking space within the car park facility. The city wide PGIS is indeed helpful in assisting drivers to car park with vacant parking spaces via the information occupancy status for various car parks around the city as well as other relevant information. On the other hand, guidance in locating the vacant parking space within the car park is ultimately provided by PGIS implemented within the car park.

PGIS can be summarized as consisting of 4 major components: namely, information disseminating mechanism, information gathering mechanism, control center and telecommunication networks similar to the components stated by Mouskos et al., 2007. Static/dynamic Variable Message Signs (VMS) have been used in providing drivers with direction either on the road or within the car park. For guidance on the road, various implementation methods can be adopted. For example, the system in Shinjuku and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania segregates the city area into color coded areas for in providing guidance (Kurogo et al., 1995; Shaheen et al., 2005). The PGIS in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania also functions in directing drivers to special attraction in the area. Meanwhile, in Yokohama, Japan, the city is divided into four zones whereby the information specificity increases with each zone that the driver cross to arrive at the destination location. Additional information on traffic flow provided by the Aichi Prefectural Police Headquarters Traffic Control Center and Japan Highway Public Corporation Nagoya Department is also provided by the system implemented in Toyota, Japan (Sakai et al., 1995).

Mobile phones can also be used for guidance based on the research conducted by Idna and Tamil (2007) which utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS) for vehicle detection. A map of the driver’s current position based on the GPS data along with the status of three of the nearby car park are sent to their mobile phones based on the patron’s current location. The GPS technology used are discussed in detail by Tamil et al. (2007). Besides that, the parking guidance system developed based on web and GIS technology (Liu et al., 2006) are able to disseminate information to the users via internet, mobile phones and/or PDA. The guidance system can be with the conventional parking management system as well. In order to guide the patrons effectively, the car park map is printed on the parking ticket equipped with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags for guidance (Idna et al., 2008) so that patrons can locate the assigned parking slot with ease. There are also no worries about forgetting the location of the assigned parking slot during exit.

Vehicle detection sensors are commonly installed at entrances, exits and/or individual parking space to detect vehicle occupancy. Indicator lights integrated with sensors are also sometimes installed at every individual parking space within the parking facility. The occupancy status detected by the sensors can either be occupancy of each individual parking space or in terms of vehicles counts in the car park depending on the installation of the sensors. Moving on, the control center gathers and processes the traffic and occupancy information as well as controls the display of information for drivers whereas the telecommunication network facilitates the transfer of information among the other three modules (Mouskos et al., 2007). With the advent of advanced technologies, the implementation of devices such as microcontroller and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are incorporated for faster information processing. Not only that, the telecommunication network no longer dependent on conventional electrical wiring but wireless technologies are able to be utilized. Researchers such as Wang and Chen (2004), Bi et al. (2006), Liu et al. (2006), Tang et al. (2006), Idna et al. (2008), Lee et al. (2008) and Seong-Eun et al. (2008) have all used wireless network for data transfer in the implementation of their proposed parking guidance system.

Transit based information system: The functionality of transit based information system implemented in countries such as France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States (Shaheen et al., 2005) is actually similar to PGIS. The difference exist in the fact the Transit Based Information System concentrates on guiding user to park-and-ride facilities. It provides real-time information on the status of each car park and public transportation such as the schedules and traffic condition to the public. The additional information provided enables the patrons to plan for transit in advance without getting into any inconvenience (Chinrungrueng et al., 2007). Among its benefits includes increase in the utilization of public transportation as the primary means of transportation as they can leave their vehicle in the car park and switch to public transportation with ease. This will indirectly lead to an increase in the transit revenue (Shaheen et al., 2005; Chinrungrueng et al., 2007).

No doubt, for the transit based information system to achieve success in its implementation, proper planning must be conducted. This is especially true in selecting the location for the park-and-ride car parks that maximizes transit whereby the concept of catchment area/commutersheds are often used such as indicated by Horner and Groves (2007). In the network flow-based technique introduced, it improves on the conventional spatial model used in determining the park-and-ride facility location by taking into consideration the traffic flow and works in reducing the vehicle miles travelled by maximizing the interception of vehicle during the beginning stage of the journey.

There have been many research centered upon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Among them are the research conducted for siting park-and-ride car parks in Columbus, Ohio. Farhan and Murray (2008) incorporated multi-objective spatial optimization model in locating the park-and-ride facilities while considering numerous objectives and constraints as well as taking into consideration the existing system. While research by Farhan and Murray (2008) made no assumption on user demands, Horner and Grubesic (2001) used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in representing the index of user demands which will be converted to demand points when coupled with information obtained via Geographic Information System (GIS). Subsequently, additional calculation conducted by Horner and Groves (2007) takes into account various other factors which includes: geographical, network, travel time from demand points to the location of the park-and-ride facilities and the constraints of computershed shapes are performed in determining the location and commutershed area for the park-and-ride lots.

Smart payment system: The smart payment system is implemented in the effort to overcome the limitation of the conventional payment methods by revamping the payment method via parking meter and introduce new technologies. This is because the conventional method causes delay and inconvenience for the patrons as they have to deal with cash. It also reduces maintenance and staffing requirement for payment handling purposes as well as traffic control (Chinrungrueng et al., 2007). In general, the Smart Payment System implemented in places such as Finland, Italy, London and United States (Hinze, 2000; Shaheen et al., 2005; Jones, 2006; Mouskos et al., 2007) consists of contact method, contactless method and mobile devices. While the contact method involves the use of smart cards, debit cards and credit cards, the contactless method involves the use of contactless cards, mobile devices as well as Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI) tag whereby RFID technologies are utilized (Mouskos et al., 2007). As contact methods requires contact of the cards with parking meter or payment machines in the facility, the latter offers more convenience to the patrons.

Parking meters have now been improvised with technologies which revolutionize the payment system via implementing various improvements such as the acceptance of various types of cards such as credit card, debit cards (Shaheen et al., 2005) and smart cards (Hinze, 2000). It also incorporates other technologies such as having solar power source and wireless connectivity. The PhotoViolationMeter (Photo Violation Technologies, n.d.) which caters for various types of payment methods uses ground sensors in detecting vehicle presence. Most importantly, technologies such as WiFi connectivity (Photo Violation Technologies, n.d.), together with its ability in handling payment of fines and taking photos of vehicles which violates parking regulations for evidence are also incorporated (Ebling and De Lara, 2007). Personal parking meters which are essentially placed in the vehicle have also been introduced in Buffalo, New York and Aspen, Colorado after test studies have been conducted (Jones, 2006).

The incorporation of RFID technologies in making payments were implemented in commercial systems such as Mobipower Ltd., which utilized RFID-based cellular technology and EZPass system have also developed payment system via RFID for car parks and toll facilities (Mouskos et al., 2007). Similarity between the two systems exists in the requirement for placement of transponder unit in the vehicle. Moving on, the implementation of mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDA are normally seen to incorporate other devices such as parking meters and cards. For some systems such as those implemented in Groningen, Netherlands (Shaheen et al., 2005) and Oulu, Finland (Jones, 2006), prior registration via the internet is required. As mobile phones are utilized, the system implemented in Oulu, Finland also has the capability of sending Short Message Service (SMS) notification to remind the patrons that the time is almost due and allow them to settle the payment for the additional time extension required (Jones, 2006).

The main concern hindering the implementation of the Smart Payment System would have to be skepticism on the privacy and security issues. This is due to the fact that confidential data of the patrons such as personal information and probably account information are being dealt with which are highly confidential. With the emergence of various threats, it is justifiable to be worried. In RFID implementation alone, exploits, malwares and worms (Rieback et al., 2006a), as well as attacks such as sniffing, spoofing, replay attack and denial of services are just a fraction of it. Of course, methods have been developed in securing the data and overcoming the threats as is it discovered ranging from the cryptography, detection and evasion as well as temporary deactivation which are constantly improved from the conventional method implemented which dates back to World War II (Rieback et al., 2006b).

E-parking: E-parking provides an alternative for patrons to enquire the availability and/or reserve a parking space at their desired parking facility to ensure the availability of vacant car park space when they arrive at the parking facility. The system can be accessed via numerous methods such as SMS or through the internet. Some of the additional benefits of using the E-parking system aside from those collectively gained by smart parking system are that it can be extended easily to incorporate the payment mechanism of smart payment system whereby payments by the patrons are made hassle free using the technologies discussed previously. Customized information can also be provided to the patrons either before or during their trip to the car park (Shaheen et al., 2005).

In a study by Inaba et al. (2001), reservations can be made through the utilization of mobile phones or any reservation centers convenient to the patrons. On the other hand, the study by Hodel and Cong (2004) revealed options of using the internet via Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) enabled mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and even conventional computer in addition to SMS service for the drivers in accessing the information as well as making reservations. Teodorovic et al. (2006) takes the implementation a step further by incorporating fuzzy logic in decision making whereby the parking reservation request can either accepted or rejected. It also facilitates the enforcement of tariff classes to enable the maximization of revenue for car park operators. The system discussed in (Idna and Tamil, 2007) is one of the systems integrating PGIS with E-parking system, where the patrons are able to reserve parking slots after reviewing the status of the car park and its proximity to the patron’s current location. An example of the message to the patrons is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1:Example of parking reservation system message

Thus far, numerous systems have been implemented online for city wide implementation, university campuses as well as complexes. Among the examples of companies involved in the development of E-parking system are companies such as ParkingCarma (ParkingCarma, n.d.), Click and Park (Click and Park, n.d.) and City and Suburban Parking Ltd., (City and Suburban Parking Ltd., n.d.). As the E-parking systems implemented online can also be considered as E-commerce applications, it has been proposed that the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is employed in modeling the system’s performance. This can be achieved by converting the class diagram and sequence diagram to an execution diagram via an intermediary actor-event graph and combining it with other necessary information pertinent to the system (Geetha et al., 2007).

As observed, there are many different implementation methods that can be enforced by incorporating various technologies. Besides the difference in reservation method, different reservation types can also be enforced such as proposed by Inaba et al. (2001), whereby patrons can chose not to declare the exit time and park for an indefinite amount of time. To gain access in to the car park, printed receipts, permits or passes are utilized by the patrons. More sophisticated implementation proposed which requires the use of smart cards or magnetic cards (Inaba et al., 2001) and Bluetooth (Hodel and Cong (2004)) are also implemented in granting access to the patrons. It can also be implemented together with Smart Payment System payment schemes such as cards (Inaba et al., 2001; Hodel and Cong (2004)), pre and post paid methods as well as m-payment (Hodel and Cong (2004)) are utilized.

Automated parking: Automated parking involves the use of computer controlled mechanism, which allows patrons to drive up to the bay, lock the cars and let the machines automatically place the vehicle in the allocated space. This type of car park offers maximum utilization of space as it is machine controlled unlike conventional car park where space is needed for navigation of vehicle within the car park. Among its benefits are that the implementation works great in locations, where there are limited room for expansion due to its structure. Besides that, the Automated Parking System also offers efficiency in car storage as it allows car stacking and the patron does not even need to go into the car park which indirectly provides extra safety measures which covers both the vehicles and patrons (Shaheen et al., 2005).

Among the automated parking system reviewed in countries which includes Japan, Canada and United States (Shaheen et al., 2005) as well as the commercial system developed by companies such as automotion parking system (Automotion, n.d.), robotic parking (Robotic Parking, n.d.) and Fata SKYPARKS (Fata SKYPARKS, n.d.), it generally utilizes computer controlled mechanism in placing the vehicles in its storage bay within the parking facility. Automated parking can also be implemented in a conventional car park via additional equipments installed such as developed by Fata SKYPARKS (Fata SKYPARKS, n.d.). There are many variations whereby the automated parking system can be implemented, from the design of the car park structure to the workings of the computer controlled docks/lifts as well as the placement of vehicles whereby user participation are sometimes required.

The safety features are geared towards the vehicle whereby it is important to ensure that the vehicle remains safe and undamaged with all the handling by the computer controlled mechanisms. Research by Mathijssen and Pretorius (2007) introduced a three-level software design which includes: Logical Layer (LL), Safety Layer (SL) and Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) to enforce correct and efficient storage of vehicles in a safe manner. As the car park facility is designed with conveyer belts, rotatable lifts and shuttles, it has to be coordinated to ensure successful and safe placement and retrieval of the vehicle.


The smart parking system relies heavily on the car park occupancy information as it is not only used in assisting the drivers on the road, but in the management within the car park as well. There is abundance of sensor system that can be installed to provide this crucial piece of information. Having said that, there are many factors which can affect the occupancy detection such as sensor chosen car park type and layout, to name a few.

Vehicle detection technology: Vehicle sensors and detector system can be categorized into two main categories: namely, intrusive and non-intrusive sensors (Mimbela and Klein, 2007). Intrusive sensors are sensors which are typically installed in holes on the road surface, by tunneling under the road surfaces or anchoring to the surface of the road which leads to invasive procedures of installation whereas the latter can be installed easily by mounting the device on the ground or the ceiling of the car park. With the variety of sensors on the market, factors such as the cost, environmental condition, scale of implementation as well as the system design would have to be considered while selecting the sensors.

Examples of intrusive sensors include active infrared sensors, inductive loops, magnetometers, magneto- resistive sensors, pneumatic road tubes, piezoelectric cables and weigh-in-motion sensors. As denoted by its name, intrusive sensors typically requires pavement cut for installation which indirectly decreases pavement life. For installation and maintenance on the road, lane closure would have to be conducted, which would lead to inconvenience of the drivers (Chinrungrueng et al., 2006; Lenz and Edelstein, 2006; Mimbela and Klein, 2007; Mouskos et al., 2007).

On the other hand, non-intrusive sensors encompasses microwave radar, passive acoustic array sensors, passive infrared sensor, RFID, ultrasonic and video image processing. Non-intrusive sensors can easily be installed and maintained and does not affect the surface in the process. Unlike intrusive sensors, maintenance and installation for non-intrusive sensors can be conducted without invasive procedures and disruption of traffic (Kastrinaki et al., 2003; Mimbela and Klein, 2007). The description, strength and weaknesses of the various sensor technologies that are currently utilized in vehicle detection as compiled by Mimbela and Klein, 2007 together with other research by Kastrinaki et al., 2003, Cheung et al. (2005), Chinrungrueng et al., 2006, Lenz and Edelstein, 2006, Wolff et al. (2006), Mouskos et al., 2007 and Pala and Inanc (2007) will subsequently be scrutinized. Each of the sensors also has the ability to provide different detection parameters which are also discussed in the aforementioned studies.

Active infrared sensors: Active infrared sensors detects vehicles by emitting infrared energy and detecting the amount of energy reflected (Mimbela and Klein, 2007; Mouskos et al., 2007). By utilizing the active infrared sensors, multiple lane operations can be conducted. For an accurate measurement of vehicle position, speed and class, multiple beams are transmitted from the sensor. However, the drawback of the sensor would be its sensitivity towards environmental conditions such as fog or blowing snow which affects the operation of the sensors.

Inductive loop detectors: Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs) are wire loops of various sizes which are exited with signals whose frequencies range from 10 to 50 kHz. The oscillation frequency of the inductive loop is directly controlled by the inductance of the loop which changes with vehicle presence. The sensor system proved to be a mature and well understood technology with large experience base and extensive research conducted. Besides that, its flexibility also allows for the implementation in a large variety of applications. The vehicle detection zone can be easily enlarged by combining the loops together. Compared with other commonly used techniques, ILD provides the best accuracy for count data. In fact, inductive loop sensors became the common standard for obtaining accurate occupancy measurements.

While the inductive loop detector has its advantages, it is not without flaw as it is expensive to maintain (Mouskos et al., 2007). Not only does it require multiple detectors to monitor a specific location, the Wire loops subjected to wear and tear due to stresses of traffic and temperature. Detection accuracy would also be compromised when design requires detection of a large variety of vehicle classes. While it is mentioned by Mimbela and Klein, 2007 that it is insensitive to weather condition such as rain, fog and snow, Mouskos et al., 2007 has stated that the sensors are sensitive to element such as water, especially if the pavement is cracked.

Magnetometer (fluxgate magnetometer): Fluxgate magnetometers works by detecting perturbation (magnetic anomaly) in the earth’s horizontal and vertical magnetic field. Fluxgate magnetometers provide the advantage of being insensitive to weather condition such as snow, rain and fog. It is also more accurate and less susceptible than loops to stresses of traffic. As the technologies for wireless transmissions evolves, wireless RF link are also used to transmit data in some models. Among the disadvantages of using fluxgate magnetometers are the small detection zones in some model which requires multiple units are required for full lane detection as well as the close proximity required for accurate detection (Cheung et al., 2005; Mimbela and Klein, 2007).

Magnetometer (induction or search coil magnetometer): Induction or search coil magnetometer identifies vehicle signature by measuring the change in the magnetic flux lines caused by the moving vehicle according to Faraday’s Law of induction (Lenz and Edelstein, 2006; Mimbela and Klein, 2007

Women Security System

Abstract: - In the current scenario there is a highest priority issue of women security. Government has provided security through rules & regulation to society. There are different aspects, areas & scopes of women security. Recently security concern is the major problem. Generally society is victim of the terrorism, kidnaper, theft, murder .At the same time women are facing problems like chain snatching, kidnapping, molestation etc. Now a days these problematic situations have spoiled the peace of the society. Women security issue has become most important. Every one very much familiar to all incidents those are happening around us.
There are some applications available in the market for security purpose. Some applications like android application, smart finger ring etc. Women security system topic has been chosen by considering so many issues, aspects, areas, need & problems .Women security system has considered for providing solution to different problems. The important part of the system is prevention of incident & communication through wireless medium. A security system in which prevention will be the highest event & communication is second event.
Prevention & communication is the aim of women security system.


The basic Principle used for security system is prevention & communication by using GPS,GSM technology.
The prevention of Molestation, kidnapping, murder are most important events than the communication of that event wireless communication.
Hence the project is divided into two parts.
1) Prevention of Incident, 2) Communication of that incident through wireless,
To prevent above mentioned incidents various techniques are being used such as spray model, automatic shocking system, alarm etc.
The SMS information, video information, audio information can be sent to various people like Cops, Doctor, Family Members. A sorted information will be sent to the concern people i.e. doctor will have information of medical help, police will have information of legal & judicious help of that incident and family members will have information of their daughter / wife / mother.

Following block diagram shows the system overview of women security system:

Figure 1


Figure 2


Figure 3

Following are the parts of the system.

a) Transmitter section/User section/Prevention section

b) Receiver section/Dedicated section /Communication section

Following are the important blocks of Transmitter
Sensors, Siren, Shock mechanism, Spray model
Emergency keys , GSM/GPS System, Microcontroller

Following sensors are used at the Transmitter Side

A) Pulse Rate Sensor
B) Pressure sensor
C) Voice coding sensor

A) Pulse Rate Sensor:

Pulse Rate Sensor plays important role to have controller action to use preventive measures automatically.
Preventive tools like spray mechanism &shocking mechanism
Will be automatically turned on to get relief from criminal.
Controller will have next priority to process data through GPS&GSM model. As Per figure 2 controllers takes data from
Pulse rate sensor. &it will act as per status of pulse.
In normal situation pulse rate of human being is constant but whenever there is a psychological incidents such as happiness, sadness, excitement, fear etc. that status won't produce constant pulse rate of the heart. In that condition signal comparison will be carried out by micro controller, hence if there is a problematic situation, uncomforted situation for the person at that time that pulse rate plays important role to have further process of that system.

B) Pressure Sensor:
Two pressure sensors are being used for different task.
As per figure 2 the function of the pressure sensor is to convert pressure into electrical pulse which is given to the microcontroller.

For following cases pressure sensors are useful
a) At the time of molestation
b) When user is not able to oppose to The criminal.

Case 1: At the time of molestation pressure sensor will convert
Pressure into electrical Signal &signal will pass to Controller to have expected events to be carried out as per priority.

Case 2: When user is not able to oppose to the criminal, in that
Case as per foot moment pressure can be converted into electrical signal &then it can pass to controller to have expected events to be carried out as per priority.

C) Voice Code Sensor:

Voice Code Sensor is responsible to have signal to the micro controller regarding some acknowledgment according to that sensor output, micro controller / processor will produce necessary action. Voice Code will be defined by system designer.

Following are the preventive mechanisms used for security.

A) Alarm
B) Shock mechanism
C) Spray model

A) Alarm: whenever there is a problematic situation user
Can press emergency key switch by which alarm
Will turn on automatically& if user is not able to press. Switch in that condition heart bit rate status will be responsible to play horn with the help of microcontroller.

B) Shock Mechanism: At the time of molestation Criminal will have heavy shock to get relief from criminal.

C) Spray Model: for prevention purpose automatic spray
Will turn on &criminal will become unconscious.

Following is the key concept/emergency keys

Emergency Keys
Emergency manual keys have been used to prevent the crime. A key has been defined for necessary carrying of event to the micro controller and the peripheral. But some time emergency keys operation by manually will have failure, in that incident the victim person may not able to operate those manual keys. In that case pulse sensor, voice code sensor, foot press sensor plays important role to reduce failure of manual keys.

Manual keys will be responsible for siren or horn communication, GSM, GPS based communication and for preventive action.

GSM & GPS Communication:

GPS technology is the responsible for location tracking of that person & with the help of GSM technology & code signal will be transmitted in the form of message, voice, picture information to the required destinations. Nearest cops control room, nearest medical facility room, family members & to the Govt. Authorities.

GSM technology uses the principle of TDMA i.e. Time Division Multiple Access. It operates at either 900 MHz or 800 MHz frequency band. GPS receiver has got 16 channels. GPS receiver provides high position, velocity, time accuracy performances as well as high sensitivity and tracking capabilities. Very fast TTFF.

LPC 2138 / ARM 7 Micro Controllers:

Micro Controller LPC 2138 / ARM 7 plays important role to have prevention and communication of that incident. Pulse rate sensor, horn, emergency keys, GSM, GPS system are communicated with micro controller. Status of pulse rate of the women / person will be given to the micro controller & as per pulse rate signal further communication will happen or further task will be carried out by micro controller as per priority. Following are the important features of ARM 7 TDMI processor. i) It is 32 bit processor, ii) It based on risk architecture, iii) High Speed & Lowe Power consumption, iv) It employees unique architectural strategy known as thumb which is required for high volume application.

Following are the blocks for Receiver
GSM ,Dedicated Mobile ,LCD Display,PC

LCD Display has been used to display the text message at the destination i.e. to cops control room, family member's mobiles, doctor, concern Govt. Authority.


A. Hardware Implementation:

i) Transmitter Side: Micro Controller Based System with pulse rate sensor, siren, voice code sensor, foot press sensor, spray model.

ii) Receiver Side: LCD display, PC, Mobile etc.



The women security system is the helpful tool to have self defense for women. There are chances to reduce crimes against molestation, kidnapping, murder etc.

By using this system prevention of incident is been carried out by using spray model, shock model, siren indication, these methods will be helpful to prevent that violence rather than communication. Communication through GPS & GSM technology is the supplementary part to have help to the person. In future to have legal process video information can be sent to the cops, State & Central Govt. to have immediate punishment to the criminal.

Also the system will be helpful to all people those who are in remote area for their protection against criminal, atmospheric problems like earthquakes, flood problems, heavy rainy season, heavy fog season etc.


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[3] LI G H, ZHAO J, WANG Z. Research on Forest Fire Detection Based on Wireless Sensor Network, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, June 21-23,2006,Dalian,China

[4] security Bug: http://security.sourceforge.net/

[5] Chien-Liang Fok, Gruia-Catalin Roman, Chenyang Lu. Tracking Fires using Mobile Agents in a Wireless Sensor Network[C]. Fourth International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2005). April 25-27, Sunset Village, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

[6] CHEN Y L,NIE J,LI H M. The Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network Node Based on CC2420[J]. Computer Knowledge and Technology,2006,5:114

[7] LIU B, A Study on Wireless Sensor Networks Location[C]. 2006
International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and
Mobile Computing, WiCOM 2006, 2006 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, WiCOM 2006, 2007, p 414-451

[8] He T,Blurn B M,Stankovic J A,Abdelzaher T F.AIDA:Adaptive application independent data aggregation in wireless sensor networks.ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing System(Special Issue on Dynamically Adaptable Embedded Systems),2004,3(2):426-457

[9] TIAN Y C,LIU S G, ZHAO G etal. Multi-model forecasting system of forest fire spreading based on deductive database [J], Journal of Beijing Forestry University, v 29, n 4, July, 2007, p 49-53

[10] TANG X Y, MENG X Y, YI H R'Review and prospect of researches on forest fire spreading models and simulating method Journal of
Beijing Forestry University (2002)24(1):87'9l

[11] LI W B,ZHANG J M. Model for forecasting the electric field intensity of UHF wireless frequency band in plantations[J], Journal of Beijing Forestry University, v 29, n 4, July, 2007, p15-18

[12] ZHANG J M. Studies on Radio Wave Propagation Mechanisms through Plantation Forest and Control System of Pruning Machine [D]. Beijing Forestry University, 2005.

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