Five Kingdoms Assignment

The Five Kingdom System of Classification

In order to suggest a better system of classification of living organisms, R.H. Whittaker (1969) an American Taxonomist divided all the organisms into 5 kingdoms based on their phylogenetic relationships. This classification takes into account the following important criteria.

            Complexity of Cell structure - prokaryote to Eukaryote

            Mode of nutrition - autotrophs and heterotrophs

            Body organization -unicellular or multi-cellular

            Phylogenetic or evolutionary relationship

The Five kingdoms are  Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

1. Monera

The Kingdom of Prokaryotes

This kingdom includes all prokaryotic organisms i.e. mycoplasma, bacteria, actinomycetes(filamentous bacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue green Algae). They show the following characters.

            They are microscopic. They do not possess a true nucleus. They lack membrane bound organelles.

            Their mode of nutrition is autotrophic or heterotrophic. Some bacteria are autotrophic and are photosynthetic. i.e. they can synthesize their organic food in the presence of sunlight eg. Spirillum. Some bacteria are chemosynthetic i.e. they can synthesize their organic food by deriving energy from some chemical reactions. eg. Nitrosomonasand Nitrobacter.

            Many other bacteria like RhizobiumAzotobacter and Clostridium can fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. This phenomenon is called Biological Nitrogen Fixation .

            Some bacteria are parasites and others live as symbionts.

            Some monerans like Archaebacteria can live in extreme environmental conditions like absence of oxygen (anaerobic), high salt condition, high temperature like 800c or above and highly acidic soils.

2. Kingdom Protista

This kingdom includes eukaryotic unicellular mostly aquatic cells. They show the following characters.

            They have a typical Eukaryotic cell organization.

            They often bear cilia or flagella for locomotion. Most of them are photosynthetic autotrophs. They form the chief producers of food in oceans and in fresh water. All unicellular plants are collectively called as phytoplanktons and unicellular animals as zooplanktons. Phytoplanktons are photosynthetically active and have cell wall.

            Zooplanktons are mostly predatory. They lack cell wall and show holozoic mode of nutrition as in Amoeba.

            Some protists are parasitic. Some are symbionts while others are decomposers.

Euglena, a protozoan has two modes of nutrition. In the presence of sunlight it is autotrophic and in the absence of sunlight it is heterotrophic. This mode of nutrition is known as myxotrophic and hence they form a border line between plants and animals and can be classified in both.

3. Kingdom Fungi

This kingdom includes moulds, mushrooms, toad stools, puffballs and bracket fungi. They have eukaryotic cell organization. They show the following characteristics.

        

  They are either unicellular or multi-cellular organisms.

Their mode of nutrition is heterotrophic since they lack the green pigment chlorophyll. Some fungi like Puccinia are parasites while others like Rhizopus are saprotrophic and feed on dead organic matter.

            Their body is made up of numerous filamentous structures called hyphae.

            Their cell wall is made up of chitin.

4. Kingdom Plantae

It includes all multi-cellular plants of land and water. Major groups of Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms andAngiosperms belong to this kingdom. It shows the following characteristics.

            The cells have a rigid cell wall made up of cellulose.

            They show various modes of nutrition. Most of them are autotrophs since they have chlorophyll. Some plants are heterotrophs. For eg. Cuscuta is a parasite. Nepenthes and Drosera are insectivorous plants.

5. Kingdom Animalia

This kingdom includes all multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms. They are also referred to as metazoans. They show the following characteristic features.

            All animals show heterotrophic mode of nutrition. They form the consumers of an ecosystem.

            They have contractibility of the muscle cells.

            They can transmit impulses due to the presence of nerve cells.

            Some groups of animals are parasites eg. tapeworms and roundworms.

Merits of the Five Kindom Classification

            It shows the phylogenetic relationships among the organisms.

            It is based on the complexity of the cell structure from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cell organization.

            It is based on the complexity of body organization from unicellular to multi-cellular.

            It is based on the modes of nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Demerits of Five Kingdom Classification

            Chlamydomonas and Chlorella are included under the kingdom Plantae. They should have been included under kingdom Protista since they are unicellular.

Difficulties in classification

                        

                        Since living organisms exhibit great variety and diversity and also they have evolved through millions of years and there are many missing links between groups, it is very difficult to have a clear cut and well defined classification. Biological classification reflects the state of our knowledge. It changes as we acquire new information. By the 1970s molecular biologists realized that prokaryotes consist of two different and unrelated groups. To accommodate this new information three microbiologists, C.Woese,O.Kandler, and M.L Wheelis introduced a new classification scheme in 1990. They proposed that all organisms be divided into three major groups called domains: the Eucarya (containing all eukaryotes), the Bacteria (containing most familiar prokaryotes), and theArchaea (originally called archaebacteria and containing prokaryotes that live mostly in extreme environments.) This scheme is currently accepted by most biologists.

                        

                        Classification will undoubtedly continue to change.



The Five Kingdoms

Kingdoms are a way that scientists have developed to divide all living things. These divisions are based on what living things have in common and how they differ. This system was developed over 2, 000 years ago and has changed drastically over the years. Currently there are five kingdoms in which all living things are divided: Monera Kingdom, Protist Kingdom, Fungi Kingdom, Plant Kingdom, and Animal Kingdom.

Monera Kingdom

The Monera Kingdom consists of organisms that are made up of one cell. These organisms are called unicellular. These unicellular organisms are made of a very simple cell that often lacks many cell parts, such as a nucleus, that are commonly found in other cells. Bacteria are a type of monera.

Protist Kingdom

Protists are similar to monera in that they are unicellular. Protists are a bit more complex because they contain a nucleus. They also have moving parts and can move around within their environment.

Fungi Kingdom

Fungi have their own kingdom because there is no other organism like them. They were once thought to be plants but they differ from plants in one major way. Fungi cannot make their own food. Mushrooms are a type of fungi.

Plant Kingdom

All plants are a part of the Plant Kingdom. Plants include trees, grass, flowers, and algae. They all share the common characteristic of being able to make their own food using water and sunlight. Because they only require a few simple requirements, plants can grow almost anywhere.

Animal Kingdom

Organisms in the Animal Kingdom are multicellular and rely on other organisms for food. This kingdom is by far the largest of all the kingdoms. The animals of the Animal Kingdom can be found all over the world and can be any size from very tiny to extremely big.

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