For other uses, see White paper (disambiguation).
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.
The initial British term concerning a type of government-issued document has proliferated, taking a somewhat new meaning in business. In business, a white paper is closer to a form of marketing presentation, a tool meant to persuade customers and partners and promote a product or viewpoint. White papers may be considered grey literature.
The term white paper originated with the British government, and many point to the Churchill White Paper of 1922 as the earliest well-known example under this name. In British government it is usually the less extensive version of the so-called blue book, both terms being derived from the colour of the document's cover.
White papers are a "... tool of participatory democracy ... not [an] unalterable policy commitment." "White papers have tried to perform the dual role of presenting firm government policies while at the same time inviting opinions upon them."
In Canada, a white paper is "...a policy document, approved by Cabinet, tabled in the House of Commons and made available to the general public." The "provision of policy information through the use of white and green papers can help to create an awareness of policy issues among parliamentarians and the public and to encourage an exchange of information and analysis. They can also serve as educational techniques."
White papers are a way the government can present policy preferences before it introduces legislation. Publishing a white paper tests public opinion on controversial policy issues and helps the government gauge its probable impact.
By contrast, green papers, which are issued much more frequently, are more open-ended. Also known as consultation documents, green papers may merely propose a strategy to implement in the details of other legislation, or they may set out proposals on which the government wishes to obtain public views and opinion.
Examples of governmental white papers include White Paper on Full Employment, White Paper of 1939, and the 1966 Defence White Paper.
In business-to-business marketing
Since the early 1990s, the term "white paper" has been applied to documents used as marketing or sales tools in business. These white papers are long-form content designed to promote the products or services from a specific company. As a marketing tool, these papers use selected facts and logical arguments to build a case favorable to the company sponsoring the document. B2B white papers are often used to generate sales leads, establish thought leadership, make a business case, or inform and persuade prospective customers, channel partners, journalists, analysts, or investors.
White papers are considered to be as a form of content marketing or inbound marketing; in other words, sponsored content available on the web with or without registration, intended to raise the visibility of the sponsor in search engine results and thus build web traffic. Many B2B white papers argue that one particular technology, product or method is superior for solving a specific business problem. They may also present research findings, list a set of questions or tips about a certain business issue, or highlight a particular product or service from a vendor.
There are, essentially, three main types of commercial white papers:
- Backgrounder: Describes the technical or business benefits of a certain vendor's offering, either a product, service, or methodology. This type of white paper is best used to supplement a product launch, argue a business case, or support a technical evaluation at the bottom of the sales funnel.
- Numbered list: Presents a set of tips, questions, or points about a certain business issue. This type is best used to get attention with new or provocative views, or cast aspersions on competitors.
- Problem/solution: Recommends a new, improved solution to a nagging business problem. This type is best used to generate leads at the top of the sales funnel, build mind share, or inform and persuade stakeholders, building trust and credibility in the subject.
While a numbered list may be combined with either other type, it is not workable to combine the detailed product information of a backgrounder with the industry-wide perspective of a problem/solution white paper.
Several variations on the colour theme exist:
- The green paper is a proposal or consultative document rather than being authoritative or final.
Two others are much less well established:
- A blue paper sets out technical specifications of a technology or item of equipment.
- A yellow paper is a document containing research that has not yet been formally accepted or published in an academic journal. It is synonymous to the more widely used term preprint.
- ^Graham, Gordon. "What exactly is a white paper?". The White Paper FAQ. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- ^ abRouse, Margaret. "white paper definition". TechTarget. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- ^Stelzner, Michael A. (2008). "Learn all about white papers". Whitepaper Source Publishing.
- ^James, Anthony (17 June 2017). "Origin of White Papers". Klariti.com. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- ^Doerr, Audrey D. The Role of White Papers. In: Doern, G.B. and Peter Aucoin. The Structures of Policy-making in Canada. Toronto, MacMillan, 1971. pp. 179-203.
- ^Pemberton, John E. Government Green Papers. Library World 71:49 Aug. 1969.
- ^Doerr, Audrey D. The Role of White Papers in the Policy-making Process: the Experience of the Government of Canada. 1973. Thesis (Ph.D) - Carleton University. 1. 56
- ^Doerr, Audrey D. The Machinery of Government. Toronto, Methuen, 1981. p. 153.
- ^Chapin, Henry and Denis Deneau. Citizen involvement in Public Policy-making: Access and the Policy-making Process. Ottawa, Canadian Council on Social Development, 1978. p. 33.
- ^Kantor, Jonathan (2009). Crafting White Paper 2.0: Designing Information for Today's Time and Attention Challenged Business Reader. Denver, Colorado: Lulu Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-557-16324-3.
- ^Graham, Gordon (2010). How to Pick the Perfect Flavor for Your Next White Paper. ThatWhitePaperGuy. p. 15.
- ^"Blue Paper". Genuine Writing. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Graham, Gordon (2013). White Papers For Dummies. New York: Wiley. p. 366. ISBN 978-1-118-49692-3.
- Stelzner, Michael (2006). Writing White Papers: How to capture readers and keep them engaged. Poway, California: WhitePaperSource Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-9777169-3-7.
- Bly, Robert W. (2006). The White Paper Marketing Handbook. Florence, Kentucky: South-Western Educational Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-324-30082-6.
A term paper is a research paper written by students over an academic term, accounting for a large part of a grade. Term papers are generally intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point. It is a written original work discussing a topic in detail, usually several typed pages in length, and is often due at the end of a semester.
There is much overlap between the terms research paper and term paper. A term paper was originally a written assignment (usually a research based paper) that was due at the end of the "term"—either a semester or quarter, depending on which unit of measure a school used. However, not all term papers involve academic research, and not all research papers are term papers.
Term papers date back to the beginning of the 19th century when print could be reproduced cheaply and written texts of all types (reports, memoranda, specifications, and scholarly articles) could be easily produced and disseminated. Moulton and Holmes (2003) write that during the years from 1870 to 1900 "American education was transformed as writing became a method of discourse and research the hallmark of learning."
Russell (1991) writes that in the 1910s, "the research paper began to harden into its familiar form" adding that plagiarism and the sale of research papers both became a problem during this time.
Plagiarism in the computer era
See also: Essay mill
In the present day an entire industry has sprung up to provide plagiarized, pre-written or custom written term papers for students of varying levels of education. There are many websites that sell term papers of all levels of quality and writing proficiency, but are often claimed by academic institutions as seriously undermining the academic integrity of the student. Also, plagiarism can be unknowingly committed by students. Although plagiarism can be unknowingly committed it is quite a few steps that can be taken in order to avoid plagiarism. Some of the steps are quotation marks around the words or sentence that you take from a source. even if you list the source at the end of the paper be sure to mark exactly what sentence was taken from the source. Don't just count summarizing as changing a few words, that is still considered plagiarism. Actually take the time to read the content and summarize the main points of the source to how you understood the material without keeping the wording that was already used the same. Also be sure to always list your sources after putting the quote or summarization and also when providing your works cited.
- ^Moulton, Margaret R. and Holmes, Vicki L (2003) "The Research Paper: A Historical Perspective," Teaching English in the Two Year College 30(4) p.366
- ^Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870–1990: A Curricular History. Southern Illinois University, 1991. p.87-8
- ^"BBC NEWS | Education | Google bans essay writing adverts". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- ^Crawford, Miki (29 September 2010). "Are You Committing Plagiarism? Top Five Overlooked Citations to Add to Your Course Materials". FacultyFocus.com. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- ^Anne,, Ackley, Katherine. Perspectives on contemporary issues : readings across the disciplines (Eighth edition ed.). Boston. ISBN 9781305969377. OCLC 967940184.